Return to the Past - Collecting and Developing
Antique Photographic Paper
by Harvey W. Yurow Ph. D.
The demolition of Building 9, the paper plant at Kodak Park in Rochester, on 30 June 2007, sent shock waves throughout much of the photographic world. This event dramatically marked a sharp turn toward digital photography.
However, all is not lost. With the advent of e-bay on the Internet, a large number of vintage photographic items, including packages of printing paper with batch production dates going back to the early 1900's are for sale.
While it may be of interest to some individuals to keep these latter items on a shelf for exhibition, it is much more of a challenge to try to make prints from these papers.
A psychological consideration of this situation is of interest. Hirsch has coined the phrase “haptic photographer” to indicate a certain type of individual, “haptic” being from the Greek “laying
hold of.” This term applies to those who often stylize and distort the subject by image manipulation, and even of more importance here, regard the unfamiliar as important, e.g., for printing media no longer produced.
Over the years, first through "Shutterbug" ads and camera shows, and now mainly through e-bay, the author has purchased and experimented with a considerable number of these printing papers. In only a few
instances was it found impossible to produce a satisfactory image. There are several valid reasons for pursuing this endeavor. A
number of older photographic papers have unique surfaces that are no longer produced. In this connection, certain photographic
periodicals contain actual prints rather than graphic reproductions. In addition, several papers developed to unusual tones, such as
Kodak "Velvet Green". Also, it is a challenge to prepare a print from the oldest available existing paper. An example included with this article is from a package of Kodak "Velox Glossy" dated December 1906.
For a greater chance of success in obtaining a satisfactory print from a vintage printing paper, the following generalizations should
be kept in mind. First, sealed, unopened packages are free of any fogging resulting from accidental light exposure, or of
introduction of moisture, spores, etc. "Provenance" is usually non-existent, so that storage can vary from freezer (best), to closet
(good), to basement (fair), to attic (worst). In addition, slower speed papers are less subject to age fog than are more rapid
papers, ie., contact as compared to enlarging papers. Similar reasoning applies to lantern slide plates, sometimes offered for sale,
or to other transparency materials. This argument often holds true for older dated packages as compared to newer ones.
The "golden age" of B&W photographic paper was approximately from 1910-1980, the decline following the increasing
popularity of color (Dune). For this survey, the best sources are undoubtedly sample print books, company catalogs, Photo Lab Index, Popular Photography Directory issues, The Complete Photographer, as well as books on printing, e.g., by Lowe and
Dutton. Additionally, the larger city libraries often carry back issues of photographic periodicals such as American Annual of Photography, American Photography, British Journal of Photography, British Journal of Photography Almanac, The
Camera, Camera Craft, Photo Era, Photo Miniature, Popular Photography, etc. More obscure sources include Photograms of the Year (Great Britain) and Photofreund Jahrbuch and Das Deutsche Lichtbild (Germany). Unfortunately,
yearly volumes of photographic journals are sometimes bound without the advertisements, which is not the case with unbound issues.
As a bonus feature, American Annual of Photography in its earlier years had a number of actual prints inserted, including
Kodak Velox, Artura Iris, and Ansco Cyko. Further, there are a number of photographic museums that have extensive serial
collections, with catalogs listed on the Internet. The author can personally recommend the incomparable George Eastman House,
The Museum of Photographic Art in San Diego, and the photographic collection at the University of Arizona in Tucson. The
Library of Congress is also an excellent source. Noteworthy is a comprehensive enumeration on the Internet of Kodak papers, by
Dune et al. Similarly, Knoppow and Reed have provided internet listings of various vintage papers. Such photographic web sites
are also a good source of anecdotal information, especially for "legendary" papers (Table 6).
In the Tables given below are listed approximately 320 silver-gelatin developing photographic papers and positive emulsions on
translucent or opaque film bases, of yesteryear (1910-1980). Most of these papers are from the U.S., England, or Germany.
Obviously, it is hoped that omissions, which usually result when only the brand name occurs, without any description to allow any sort of Table placement, are not too numerous or too serious.
Categorization of printing papers, which is based upon nature of the silver halide salts in the emulsion in conjunction with the
printing speed, is subject to some discussion (Jones). Lowe has divided papers into four categories, bromide (fast enlarging), fast
chlorobromide (enlarging), slow chlorobromide and fast chloride (enlarging and contact), and chloride (contact). Morgan has
proposed bromide, bromochloride, chlorobromide, and chloride. The author has followed Lowe's system. In this connection,
Cykora with 40% silver bromide and approximately 60% silver chloride (Current) is given as a fast chlorobromide by Lowe and
as a bromochloride by Morgan. Indiatone, a slow chlorobromide has 26% silver bromide, while Brovira is essentially a "pure" bromide (Glafkides).
Table 1: Bromide Papers (83)
Paper Mfg. Tone Comments
Actina Bromide Actina - several surfaces & contrasts
Agfa Bromide Agfa - two contrasts
Ansco Bromide Ansco - -
Barnet Bromide Barnet - various surfaces
BP Pigment Bromide Criterion - uncoated surface
Bromega Kosmos warm black various surfaces
Bromex Argus - several surfaces & contrasts
Bromoil Barnet - uncoated surface
Bromoil Kentmere - uncoated surface
Bromoil Wellington - several surfaces & contrasts
Bromosa Mimosa - -
Bromosa Special Mimosa - -
Brovira Agfa-Ansco cold black various surfaces & contrasts
Brovira Speed Agfa cold black various surfaces & contrasts
Chamois Wellington - several contrasts, uncoated
Charcoal Black Dassonville cold artistic uncoated surfaces
Coloma Kruxo Kilborn - various surfaces & contrasts
Commercial Ilford various surfaces & contrasts
Crayon Wellington - several surfaces
De Luxe Ilford cold carbro
De Luxe Bromide Bouchet - two contrasts
De Luxe Bromide Criterion - various surfaces & contrasts
De Luxe Bromide Granville - several surfaces & contrasts
De Luxe Bromide Illingsworth cold carbro
Eastman Kodaline Bromide Kodak - one surface & high contrast
Eastman News Bromide Kodak - one surface & several contrasts
Eastman Portrait Bromide Kodak warm black two surfaces
Ebony Anken cold various contrasts
Elephant Bromide G. Murphy - various surfaces
Fujibromide Fuji - two surfaces & various contrasts
Gevabrome Gevaert neutral black various surfaces
Gevaluxe Velours Gevaert neutral black velvet surface, deep blacks
Grandamo Hauff-Leonar - artistic surfaces & various contrasts
Griffin Bromide Griffin - various surfaces
Halobrome Haloid - -
Haloid Press Bromide Haloid - several surfaces & contrasts
Haloid Record Haloid - various surfaces
Haynes Salon Special Haynes - several contrasts
Ilford Bromide (Ilfobrom) Ilford neutral black various surfaces & contrasts
Illingworth Bromide Illingworth - -
Illingworth Bromide De Luxe Illingworth - -
India-Bromide Bharat warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Insurance Bromide Kodak - one surface & high contrast
Jet GAF (Ansco) cold black various surfaces & contrasts
Kentmere Bromide Kentmere - various surfaces & contrasts
Kodak Bromide Kodak Ltd. - various surfaces & contrasts
Kosmos Bromide Kosmos - various surfaces & contrasts
Line Solar Bromide Kodak - -
Luminos Bromide Luminos neutral black various surfaces & contrasts
Luminos Pastel Luminos neutral black tinted paper base
Lustre Bromide Ilford - various surfaces & contrasts
Marfax Duplex Marks & Fuller - high contrast
Monox Defender - -
Nikko Kodak Ltd. - one surface & contrast
Novabrom Gevaert black various surfaces & contrasts
Old Master Kodak - rough surface texture
Opaline Parchment Dassonville translucent base
Orthobrom Gevaert neutral black various surfaces & contrasts
Outline Bromide Haloid - one surface & contrast
Pal Brom Pal cold black various surfaces & contrasts
Photographic Linen Luminos neutral black linen support
P.M.C. Bromide # 1-12 Kodak - various surfaces
Portrait Proofing Kodak black various surfaces & contrasts
Press Bromide Haloid cold various surfaces & contrasts
Projection Bharat warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Projection Proof Agfa-Ansco neutral black single surface & contrast
Rapidobrom Schering - -
Record Kruxo Kilborn - single surface & contrast
Royal Bromide Kodak neutral black various contrasts
Seagull Oriental cold black various surfaces & contrasts
Sensitex Medo - linen cloth
Special Platine Bouchet - -
Studio Bharat slightly warm one surface & contrast
Stripping Kruxo Kilborn transparent tissue
Super Speed Direct Positive Kodak neutral black reversal process
Transfer Bharat - image transferable to glass
Transferotype Kodak - image transferable to glass
Translux Kruxo Kilborn - transparency
Transparex Gevaert - translucent
Vega Ferrania - various surfaces
Wards Enlarging Wards neutral black several surfaces & contrasts
Weimet Bromide Weimet - one surface & contrast
Wellington Bromide Wellington cool black various surfaces
In general, bromide papers have larger silver halide grains and consequently more rapid printing speeds than chlorobromides, are
less contrasty and have cooler tones. Readers are advised to peruse the comprehensive chapter on slow emulsions
(transparencies and papers) in Glafkides. Warmer tones may be produced on these papers using a toning procedure, with the
bleach (potassium ferricyanide and potassium bromide) and redevelopment (sodium sulfide) method being the most popular ( Kodak 1984).
Paper contrast grades vary from extra soft to extra hard, e.g., 0 - 5 for Kodak and 1 - 6 for Agfa, while surfaces are even more
numerous. Surfaces vary in three major aspects. Texture or roughness includes smooth, fine-grained, or rough. Gloss can be
glossy, high lustre, lustre, or matte, while tint varies from white to cream to old ivory, i.e., buff (Kodak 1958). Variable contrast
papers make use of two emulsions, one high contrast and sensitive to blue light, and the other low contrast and sensitive to green, in conjunction with a set of printing filters (Defender).
Table 2: Fast Chlorobromide Papers (74)
Paper Mfg. Tone Comments
Adlux Du Pont warm translucent film base
Allura Ansco brown various surfaces
Ardura Ansco warm various surfaces
Artex Projection Gevaert olive-black various surfaces & contrasts
Artona Rapid Gevaert brown-black velvet surface
Barvura Canvas Barnum - heavy weight canvas
Barvura Parchmyn Barnum - translucent
Barvura Tissue Barnum - translucent
Bellona Fuji - -
Brom-Art Art-Cam warm single surface & contrast
Bromesko Kodak Ltd. warm black English version of Kodabromide
Brovira Braun Agfa warm various surfaces & contrasts
Carbro Paper Kodak - carbro, single surface & contrast
Center Oriental warm black several surfaces & contrasts
Charcoal Ember Dassonville warm various artistic surfaces
Chronapaque Du Pont warm semi-opaque film base
Cykora Agfa-Ansco warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Defender Canvas Du Pont warm canvas support
Diafilm Opaline Gevaert warm translucent film base
Diaversal Gevaert - reversal processing
Direx Grant - reversal processing
Duolux Du Pont warm translucent film base
Ektalure Kodak brown-black various surfaces
Emprex Du Pont brown- black several surfaces
GAF Pan. 3000 GAF (Ansco) neutral black two surfaces
GAF Pan. 3500 GAF (Ansco) warm black two surfaces
GAF School Photo GAF (Ansco) warm black two surfaces
GAF VeeCee Rapid GAF (Ansco) cold two surfaces & variable contrast
Gevarto Gevaert warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Gevatone Gevaert brown-black several surfaces & contrasts
Gravure Mimosa - -
Halobrome Haloid neutral various surfaces & contrasts
Illustro Defender warm several contrasts
Ivora Du Pont warm translucent film base
Kodabromide Kodak neutral black various surfaces & contrasts
Kodabrom RC Kodak neutral various surfaces & contrasts
Kovita Kodak Ltd. - several surfaces & contrasts
Luminos Mural Luminos warm two surfaces
Luminos Portrait Luminos warm black artistic surfaces
Medalist Kodak warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Mezzotone Criterion warm black various surfaces
Miradex GAF (Ansco) neutral black single surface & contrast
Multigam GAF (Ansco) - variable contrast
Mural Du Pont warm black two contrasts
Mural Kodak warm black two contrasts
Novatone Rapid Gevaert brown-black various surfaces & contrasts
Onyx Haloid neutral black -
Orthotype Mimosa - -
Pal Print Pal warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Panalure Kodak warm black two surfaces, for color neg.
Panalure Portrait Kodak brown for color negatives
Pastella Bromide Barnet warm -
Plastika Ilford warm black several surfaces & contrasts
Platino Kodak warm several surfaces & contrasts
Polycontrast Rapid Kodak warm black two surfaces & variable contrast
Polylure Kodak warm several surfaces & variable contrast
Portraya Haloid warm two surfaces
Portrait Proof Kodak brown-black one surface & contrast
Portriga Agfa very warm various surfaces & contrasts
Portriga Rapid (Speed) Agfa warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Projection Proof Ansco - various surfaces & contrasts
Projection Proof Gevaert warm one surface & contrast
Projecto Haloid - various surfaces & contrasts
Record Rapid Agfa warm brown one surface & several contrasts
Resisto Rapid Kodak neutral black rapid processing
Royal Bromesko Kodak Ltd. warm various surfaces
Rrembrandt Remington-Rand warm various surfaces
Translite Film Kodak warm translucent film base
Translite Enlarging Kodak brown-black translucent paper base
Varigam (reg., hi speed) Defender,Du Pont - various surfaces & variable contrast
Velour Black Defender,Du Pont neutral, warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Vitava Projection Kodak warm various surfaces & contrasts
Warmtone Du Pont warm various surfaces
Zito Hauff-Leonar - -
Chlorobromide papers are usually warm tone and slower than bromide papers. They are amenable to tone changes with variations
in development, i.e., developer composition, dilution, and time. Glycine hydroquinone, and chlorohydroquinone give the warmest
tones. Current found that replacement of part of the silver chloride in chlorobromide paper by silver bromide ( potassium bromide
at 50g/l, in an M-Q developer) gave increasingly colder tones. Cykora, a rapid chlorobromide with 40% silver bromide was 6x as
rapid at Indiatone, a slow chlorobromide with 26% silver bromide. Even warmer tones can result from use of various sulfide
toners including bleach and redevelopment, polysulfide, colloidal sulfur, combination sulfide, and oxidizer-sulfide (Horwitz).
Table 3: Slow Chlorobromide and Fast Chloride Papers (78)
Paper Mfg Tone Comments
Argo Enlarging Defender - various surfaces & contrasts
Argotone Defender - -
Artatone Artatone - Japanese tissue base
Artura Carbon Black Kodak - two surfaces
Autopositive Paper Kodak - positive, translucent base
Athena (Vitava Athena) Kodak olive various surfaces & contrasts
Barvura Art Barnum warm artist surfaces
Barvura Silversheen Barnum - silk cloth
Barvura Vellumn Barnum - cloth fabric
Black & White Proof Defender, Du Pont cold single surface & contrast
Carbon Black (Ardura) Kodak neutral various surfaces
Carbon Natura Natura - -
Chloralla Gennert neutral -
Clorona Ilford warm various surfaces
Contest Paper Ansco cold one surface
Copy House Enlarging Kilborn - several surfaces & contrasts
Crystalla Gennert warm -
Cyko (Enlarging) Ansco cold various surfaces & contrasts
Cykon Agfa-Ansco warm various surfaces & contrasts
Cylko Ansco - silk surface, several contrasts
Ektacolor BW Kodak - print from color negative
Ergo Ergo-Braun warm -
Ergo Platin Ergo neutral black two contrasts
Etching Brown Kodak Ltd. brown-black several surfaces
Ilfomar Ilford - -
Illustrator's Special Kodak brown-black two surfaces
Imago Hauff-Leonar - -
Indiatone Agfa-Ansco warm various surfaces
Kodalure Kodak very warm various surfaces
Kodesko Kodak Ltd. warm, neutral black translucent parchment base
Kodopal Kodak Ltd. warm black various surfaces
Kodura Kodak Ltd. warm black various surfaces
Kotava Positive Film Kodak warm ivory tinted film base
Kothena Kodak Ltd. warm black various surfaces
Larjex Gevaert cold black various contrasts
Lustrex Ansco warm various surfaces & contrasts
Marvel Brome Sears warm several surfaces & contrasts
Mimosa Mimosa - -
Multigrade Ilford cold black two surfaces, variable contrast
Novaflex Gevaert - various surfaces
Opal (Vitava Opal) Kodak brown black numerous surfaces
Opalure Print Film Kodak warm white film base
Plastella Barnet warm -
Polycontrast Kodak warm black several surfaces, var. contrast
Portrait Enlarging Agfa-Ansco warm black various surfaces
Portrait Enlarging Kruxo Kilborn warm various surfaces & contrasts
Portrait Proof Kodak - one surface & contrast
Portralure Kodak brown-black various surfaces & contrasts
Portraya Proj. Proof Haloid warm one surface & contrast
Prestona Gevaert warm -
Projection Proof Ansco neutral black one surface & contrast
Projection Proof Gevaert warm one surface & contrast
Proof Kruxo Kilborn - two contrasts
Rano Hauff-Leonar - -
Record Agfa - -
Ridax Gevaert cold or warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Rremlight Remington-Rand - translucent
Sabletone Anken warm one surface
Tonex Gevaert warm several surfaces & contrasts
Tuma Gas Tuma warm various surfaces
Varaloid Xerox neutral black various surfaces, variable contrast
Varilour Du Pont warm black various surfaces,variable contrast
Velotype Mimosa - -
Veltura Defender, Du Pont warm brown several surfaces
Verditone Kilborn warm several surfaces & one contrast
Verona Barnet warm various surfaces
Verona De Luxe Barnet brown-black various surfaces
Verotype Mimosa - -
Verotype Carbon Mimosa - -
Vitegas Kosmos - -
Vitegas De Luxe Kosmos warm various surfaces
Vittex Gevaert warm several surfaces & contrasts
Vitava Etching Brown Kodak - several surfaces
Vitava Projection Kodak - various surfaces & two contrasts
Warmtone Proof Defender warm one surface & contrast
Wellington B.B. Wellington brown-black various surfaces
Wellington Mezzotint Wellington warm various surfaces
Zitano Hauff-Leonar - two contrasts
Table 4: Chloride Papers (78)
Paper Mfg. Tone Comments
Acme Kruxo Kilborn - various surfaces & contrasts
Actina Actina - several surfaces & contrasts
Ad-Type Kodak neutral black various contrasts
Apex Defender, Du Pont warm several surfaces & contrasts
Argo Defender - -
Aristo Kodak warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Artona Contact Gevaert warm velour surface
Artos Gevaert - -
Artura Chloride Kodak - two surfaces
Artura Iris Kodak, Defender warm various surfaces
Athena Kodak brown-black various surfaces & contrasts
Azo Kodak neutral black various surfaces & contrasts
Bar-Gas Barnet - -
Barnet Gaslight Barnet - several surfaces & contrasts
Barvura Parchmyn Barnum - translucent
Barvura Tissue Barnum - translucent
Carbon Brown Mimosa - -
Contactone Agfa, Gevaert neutral black various surfaces & contrasts
Convira Ansco cold black various surfaces & contrasts
Crystal Stipple Agfa-Ansco - one surface
Commercial Kruxo Kilborn - various surfaces & contrasts
Criterion Gaslight Criterion - several surfaces & contrasts
Cyko Ansco cold or warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Cyko (Commercial) Ansco cold or warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Cyko (Professional) Ansco cold black various surfaces
Devodark Devolite cold or warm various contrasts
Devolite Devolite cold several contrasts
Flash Solar Haloid - for hand coloring
Ginrei Fuji - various surfaces & contrasts
Granville Gaslight Granville - -
Halo Haloid blue-black various contrasts
Ilford Contact Ilford - two surfaces
Illustrator's Azo Kodak warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Illustro Defender - one surface, several contrasts
Imago Hauff-Leonar - -
Industro Haloid warm various surfaces & contrasts
Industro Outline Haloid - one surface & two contrasts
Kentmere Gaslight Kentmere - various surfaces & contrasts
Kothena Kodak Ltd. warm black various surfaces
Letter Copy Kruxo Kilborn - -
Line Solar Bromide Kodak - one surface & two contrasts
Lugla Lumiere - -
Lumarto Hauff-Leonar - various surfaces & contrasts
Lupex Agfa, Ansco warm various surfaces & contrasts
Lustrex GAF (Ansco) warm several surfaces & contrasts
Marvel Contact Sears - two contrasts
Noko Ansco cold or warm black various contrasts
Nokoline (Noko) Agfa-Ansco cold black can be folded
Noktona Griffin - several surfaces
Nomis Haloid - various contrasts
Novaflex Gevaert - several contrasts, flexible
Novagas Gevaert cold or warm black various surfaces & contrasts
Novex Kosmos - -
Outline Special Haloid - several surfaces & contrasts
Portrait Kruxo Kilborn - various surfaces
Resisto Kodak neutral black rapid processing
Rito Haloid - several surfaces & contrasts
Selo Ilford blue-black various surfaces & contrasts
Ridax Gevaert - various surfaces & contrasts
Royal Velox Kodak - -
Simplex Bharat blue-black one surface, various contrasts
Speedex Ansco cold black various contrasts
Solar Bromide Kodak - one surface & contrast
Solo Gaslight Ilford blue-black -
Stenox Actina - several surfaces & contrasts
Sunotype Mimosa - -
To-ne Fuji - various surfaces & contrasts
Translite Kodak - translucent paper base
Tuma Gas Tuma brown-black various surfaces
Unicontrast VR Kodak blue-black long scale
Velox Kodak blue-black various contrasts
Velox Rapid Kodak blue-black various contrasts
Velite Kodak cold handled in room light
Vitava Alba Kodak - two surfaces
Wards Contact Wards blue-black several contrasts
Weimet Chloride Weimet - one surface, several contrasts
Wellington S.C.P. Wellington cool black various surfaces & contrasts
YTO Kentmere - -
Chloride papers have the slowest printing speed and require contact printing. They can give either warm black or bluish-black
tones, depending upon the anti-foggant used in emulsion preparation. The former are given by certain mercaptan compounds,
while the latter occur with benzotriazole, or 6-nitrobenzimidazole (Glafkides). These papers are also amenable to toning.
Table 5: Iodide Papers (5)
Paper Mfg. Tone Comments
Carbon Green Artura green contact paper, several surfaces
Tuma Gas Tuma green assumed iodide, contact paper
Velvet Green Kodak green contact paper
Verda Mimosa green enlarging paper
Vertona Gevaert green contact paper
Iodide papers are usually the slowest of all, and have even been contact printed by daylight (Kodakery). For a description of these papers, refer to a recent Internet article (Yurow) on Unblinking Eye.
At this point mention should be made of the F.I.A.T. Reports regarding paper emulsions (Glafkides). These papers resulted from
Allied investigations just after the end of World War 2 of the German photographic industry, and revealed to the public various
secret formulations of Agfa. Included were formulas for ""Brovira", "Portriga", and "Lupex". Of special interest were the very high
contrasts obtained by additions of small amounts of rhodium salts to the emulsions. After the War, "Brovira" continued to hold the
record for the highest contrast (#6) of any enlarging paper, and was found to be invaluable for producing the Sabatier effect (Jolly).
Although not included in this survey, there were available numerous brands of vintage lantern slide plates, transparency plates (or
films), designed as a source of positive images. These diapositive materials were produced by the major companies, including
Agfa, Barnet, Gevaert, Kodak, Ilford, and Wellington. They were provided in up to three contrast grades, and similar surface
texture and gloss, with chloride emulsions being inherently the most contrasty, and chlorobromide and bromide being less so
(Milner). Because images on these materials can be viewed by transmitted light, this results in a significantly longer scale that can
be obtained with prints seen by reflected light (Trade Winds). As described almost poetically by Carrell, because of the wide
variety of tones obtainable, the Alpha plates of Ilford fall into the "legendary" category and are an item worth looking for.
It is also appropriate to give a listing of the more interesting paper surfaces. Collectors should keep a sharp lookout for offers of the following papers.
Table 6: Some Interesting Paper Surfaces
Artists Drawing Paper Barvura Art, Charcoal Black, Charcoal Ember, Grandamo
Canvas Athena Old Master, Barvura Canvas, Kodak Bromide Old Master,
Velour Black, Wellington Art Canvas
Linen Athena, Azo R, Azo S, Brovira, Cyko, Indiatone 425, 426, Luminos,
Japanese Tissue Artatone
Nippon Crepe Cyko
Parchment Athena, Barvura, Charcoal Black, Opaline Parchment
Rough Matte (Fabric Rough) Barnet Bromide "Tiger Tongue", Indiatone 407, 408,
Kodabromide D, E, Kodalure D, E, Opal D, E, Warmtone Artweave
Silk Azo X, Azo Y, Barvura Silversheen, Brovira 7111,
Ektalure X, Indiatone 411, Kodabromide Y, Kodalure Y, Opal Y
Suede Kodabromide V, W, Kodalure V, W, Opal V, W
Tapestry Ektalure X, Kodabromide X, Z, Kodalure X, Z, Luminos, Opal X, Z
Tweed Ektalure R, Kodabromide R, Kodalure R, Opal R
Velour Artona Rapid, Artona Contact, Barvura Vellum, Gevaluxe
In connection with paper surfaces, it should also be mentioned that texture screens, which give a pattern on prints, occasionally
become available on e-bay. These are usually Ansco (Homespun, Oxford, Ripple, and Satin) or Defender/Du Pont (Dry Point Etching, Steeline, Tapestry, Bromoil, Paper Negative, and Salon Tapestry) (Agfa 1942, Du Pont).
At this point, a brief history of photographic paper manufacturers is in order. Early in the 20th century, Kodak incorporated a
number of independent companies including Artura and Vitava, and kept their brand name for some time for its products. In 1928
, Agfa combined with Ansco to give Agfa-Ansco (Marder). During World War 2, the US Government took over Agfa-Ansco in
America in 1942 under the Alien Property Act, and the name was first changed back to Ansco, and in 1967 the name was again
changed to GAF (General Aniline and Film). Defender's product line was incorporated into Du Pont in the 1940's, while Anken took over Dassonville. Agfa and Gevaert combined to give Agfa-Gevaert in the mid 1960's.
In the early 1900's only two types of photographic paper were available, chloride for contact prints and bromide for enlarging.
Subsequent combinations of the two silver halides in various proportions resulted in a large variety of chlorobromide papers as
witnessed by the lengths of Tables 2 and 3. These papers exhibited a large number of surfaces, and sometimes more than one contrast grade, so that the choices for a photographer expanded considerably.
In recent years a number of smaller photographic paper manufacturers have come to the fore, including Bergger, Cachet, Forte,
and Kentmere. To some extent, these companies can fill in the gap caused by discontinuations by the larger firms.
"Normal" M-Q print developers, such as Kodak D-52 or D-72, usually give excess fog with vintage materials. As discussed below, special developers are required. A photographic developer ordinarily
consists of a developing agent, a preservative, an alkali, a restrainer, and sometimes an anti-foggant. Each component can be considered in turn with regard to maximizing the difference between image
density and developer fog density, which is more important with positive images than with negative ones.
The developing agent is usually an organic compound, which ionizes in alkaline solution to give a powerful reducing agent that preferentially converts silver halide exposed to light to a silver image. There
is a balancing act needed here, so as to give good image density with negligible density background fog. Developing agents giving normal to high contrast images and low fog are amidol, chlorohydroquinone
and glycin (Focal).
The preservative, which inhibits air oxidation of the developing agent, is usually sodium sulfite. Because sulfite is a silver halide solvent that raises silver ion
concentration in developer, i.e., lowers pAg, it can give rise to solvent induced fog (Shephard and Shuman) as a result of solution physical development. Therefore, an optimum concentration of sodium
sulfite must be determined for a given developer, which is usually in the range 10-15g/l. Even lower concentrations of sodium sulfite are possible, e.g., 3g/l with a lithographic developer.
The alkali, or base, usually sodium borate, sodium metaborate, or sodium carbonate, is required to raise the pH of developer sufficiently to promote ionization of developing agent,
and to neutralize acid formed during reduction of silver halide As indicated below, amidol develops even in weakly acidic solution
, and requires only sodium sulfite, both as preservative and as base. Higher developer pH and increased fog level tend to go together, so that more restrainer and anti-foggant are thus needed.
The restrainer in most developer formulae is bromide ion, which inhibits reduction of unexposed silver halide in the emulsion via
the Law of Mass Action. In addition, bromide ion is adsorbed by silver halide grains, increases potential charge barrier and initially retards approach of negative developer anion (John and Field).
Anti-foggants, which appear to operate by a different mechanism than does bromide ion, include benzotriazole, 6-nitrobenzimi-
dazole, and potassium iodide. Organic anti-foggants tend to produce cold tones, while excess bromide ion results in warmer tones
(Mason). They function by forming less soluble compounds with silver ion than do chloride or bromide, and are effective at
concentrations as low as 0.1g/l. In this connection, at around 0.25g/l, potassium iodide prevents abrasion marks on paper, but
increased concentrations can cause decreased contrast (Snodgrass). Addition of small amounts of potassium iodide (0.5-1.0g/l)
allows development of old fogged photographic paper without noticeable fog (Kirillov). It should further be added that with very
old paper, one sometimes observes decrease of shadow density around the edges when making borderless prints. Presumably this
is somehow related to the contamination of these regions by the surrounding black paper envelope, or by slow air diffusion.
The most comprehensive article on the effect of developer formulation on paper tone is that of Morse. In the table below, tones on various types of Ansco paper with various Ansco paper developers are given.
Table 7. Tones on Ansco Papers
Paper Type #113 #103 #120 #130 #135 #115 #110
Convira chloride, contact, cold black 0 1 2 2 3 4 4
Brovira bromide, enlarging, cold black 3 3 3 3 4 5 6
Cykora fast Cl-Br, enlarging, warm black 3 4 4 4 5 6 8
Cykon slow Cl-Br, enlarging, warm black 5 5 6 6 7 8 9
Indiatone slow Cl-Br, enlarging, warm black 5 5 6 6 7 8 9
0 (very cold blue-black), 1 (cold blue-black), 2 (blue-black), 3 (neutral black), 4 (rich black), 5 (warm black),
6 (olive-black), 7 (warm olive-black), 8 (warm brown-black), 9 (very warm brown-black)
Ansco developer #113 is amidol, #103 is M-Q with low KBr, #120 is metol, #130 is M-Q with glycin, #135 is M-Q with higher
KBr, #115 is glycin and hydroquinone, and #110 is M-Q with higher KBr and lower sodium carbonate (Photo Lab Index).
While the above developers are probably suitable for well stored vintage photographic papers, the following developers are recommended for papers prone to fogging.
These developers contain an aldehyde, usually formaldehyde, or a ketone, e.g., acetone, which loosely bonds with sulfite or
bisulfite, somewhat in the manner of a pH buffer (Mason, Kirillov). At such low sulfite concentrations, e.g. 3g/l, semiquinone
formed from oxidation of hydroquinone, builds up in concentration and causes infectious development. The result is high contrast,
sharp dot patterns in lithographic film. The author has found that lithographic developers, such as Kodalith, Kodalith Fineline, or D
-85, to which has been added 0.1g/l of benzotriazole, 6-nitrobenzimidazole, or potassium iodide, give negligible fog and good
contrast with old photographic paper, but significant speed loss in printing of around two stops. Formulae are given by Attridge
and Kirillov. These developers should be allowed to stand about 0.5 hours after mixing to establish equilibrium, and used within several hours because of rapid air oxidation.
Sodium Sulfite, anhydrous
Water to make
Sodium formaldehyde bisulfite
Water to make
Sodium Carbonate, monohydrate
Water to make
Mix one part A and one part B
This developing agent, which produces cold tones, can give normal contrast with low fog (Focal). A formula devised by the author
gives excellent results on vintage papers, with less speed loss than with the lithographic developer. Benzotriazole can be replaced
by 6-nitrobenzimidazole. Similarly, concentration of potassium iodide can be increased. The reduction potential of this developer
at a pH of 6.6 is -0.300 as compared to a value of -0.407 for Kodak D-72, indicating a significantly less powerful developer
(Mees), which would be expected to better differentiate between exposed and unexposed silver halide grains. Decrease of sulfite
lowers pH, and decreases reduction potential of the developer. Amidol has a threshhold of development at a pH of 4.0 (Dickerson), which corresponds to a EMF of -0.150.
Acid Amidol pH 6.65
Water to make
Agfa Photographic Materials for Professional Use, Binghamton
April 1, 1940.
Agfa Photographic Papers, Binghamton 1941.
Andresen, M., Agfa Photo-Handbook, Germany ca 1920.
Ansco, Cyko Prints at Night, Binghamton
Ansco Professional Pointer, Binghamton 1926.
Ansco Photographic Papers, Binghamton 1954.
Ansco Photographic Papers: Sample Print Book, Binghamton, ca
American Annual of Photography, American Photographic, Boston, various years.
Attridge, G., Photographic Developing in Practice, pp 129-131, David and Charles,
British Journal of Photography Almanac, Greenwood, London, various years.
Carrell, G.N., "Thiocarbamide-Physical Development for Warm-Tone Lantern
The Photographic Journal, 87A, 157-163 (1947)
Current, I., "Some Factors Affecting Sepia Tone", PSA Journal Annual, pp 684-687
Defender Book - Photographic Papers and Films, Rochester, no date.
Defender Specimen Prints, Rochester, ca 1940.
Dickerson, M., "Notes on the Design of
Developers for Rapid Photo Processing", Photo Engineering, 5, 109 (1954).
Du Pont Photographic Papers, Wilmington, DE 1953.
Dune, C., Grinde, L., and Wiegandt,
R., "Characterization of Black-And-White Silver Gelatin Fiber-
Based Photographic Prints".
Dutton, L.E., Perfect Print Control, pp 149-151, Galleon,
New York 1937.
Focal Encyclopedia of Photography, Desk Edition, pp 330-331, MacMillan, New York 1960.
Gevaert Sensitized Photographic Products, New York 1926.
Gevaert, Films, Plates, Papers,
New York 1939.
Gevaert Manual of Photography, 4th edition, pp 241-254, Antwerp 1958.
Glafkides, P., Photographic Chemistry, pp 340-343, 347-349, 351-353, Fountain,
Hirsch, R., Exploring Color Photography, 3rd edition, p 30, Brown & Benchmark 1997.
Horwitz, S., "A Study in Brown Toning", American Annual of Photography,
pp 191-194 (1950).
Ilford Manual of Photography, London 1946.
John, D.H.O. and Field, G.T.J., Textbook of Photographic Chemistry, pp 82-83, Chapman and Hall, London
Jolly, W.L., "Solarization Demystified", Chapter 6, 1997.
Jones, L.A. and Morrison, C.A., "Sensitometry of Photographic Papers", Journal of the Franklin Institute,
228, 605-622 (1939).
Kirillov, N.I., Problems in Photographic Research and Technology, pp 75, 99-102, Focal Press, London 1967.
Knoppow, R., "More Paper Names", http://www.freelists.org/archives/pure-silver/05-2006/msg00158.html
Kodak, Artura Results, 9th edition, Rochester. no date.
Kodak, Eastman Photographic Papers, Rochester 1935.
Kodak, "Notes on Velvet Green", Kodakery, pp 26-27, Rochester May 1925.
Kodak, The Velox Book, Rochester 1938.
Kodak Photographic Papers for Professional Use,
Rochester Feb. 1941.
Kodak, Print Quality Kodaguide for Kodabromide, with sample prints, Rochester, 1942.
Kodak Papers, 3rd edition, Rochester 1946.
6th edition, Rochester 1958.
Kodak Photographic Papers Sample Print Book, Rochester, Sept. 1955.
Kodak Photographic Papers for the Professional, sample prints,
Rochester, ca 1960.
Kodak Photographic Papers, sample prints, Kodak Ltd., London, no date.
Kodak, L-9. Kodak Photographic Products, Rochester 1979-1980.
Kodak, G-23, The
ABC's of Toning, Rochester 1984.
Lowe, E.W., Modern Developing Methods, 3rd edition, p 69, Edwal, Chicago 1946.
Marder, W. and Marder, E., Anthony: The Man, The Company, The Cameras,
pp 357-358, Pine Ridge Pub., 1982.
Mason, L.F.A., Photographic Processing Chemistry, pp 39-41, 163-165, Focal, London 1966.
Mees, C.E.K., The Theory of the Photographic Process,
1st edition, pp 499-500, MacMillan, New York 1945.
Milner, C.D., Making Lantern Slides and Filmstrips, 3rd edition, Focal, London 1957.
Morgan, W.D., “Photographic
Printing Papers”, pp 2806-2820, W.D. Morgan editor, The Complete Photographer,
National Educational Alliance, New York 1943.
Morse, H.G., "Tones
on Ansco Papers", Ansconian, pp 10-14, Binghamton Nov. 1949.
Photo Lab Index, H.M. Lester editor, 9th edition, Morgan & Morgan, NY 1947.
E.M. Pittaro, editor, Morgan & Morgan, Hastings-On-Hudson, NY 1977.
Photographic Lab Handbook, J.S. Carroll editor, 4th edition, p 143, Amphoto, Garden City, NY 1977.
Directory Issue, "Printing Papers", Ziff Davis, Chicago, various years starting 1939.
Reed, M. "Yesterdays Papers",http://www.Silverprint.co.uk.
A.N.R., King, R. and Shuman, D.C., "Contributions to Fog Formation by Silver Halide Solvents",
Journal of Imaging Science, 33, 230-239 (1989).
Silverprint News, "Gevaluxe", June 2007, http://www.Silverprint.co.uk
Snodgrass, L. I., The Science and Practice of Photographic Printing, 3rd edition, pp 140, 188, 313, Falk, NY 1923.
"Duolux", Photo Technique, 1 (Nov.) pp 50-51 (1939).
Wellington Photographic Handbook, 17th edition, Elstree, UK, ca 1930.
Yurow, H.W., "A Study in
Copyright 2007 by Harvey W. Yurow. All rights reserved.