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EXPERIMENTS ON LIVING ANIMALS.

Nelson Morris & Co’s Bldg., Union Stock Yards,

Chicago, Ill.

5.  The object of these experiments was to show the comparison in stopping power and shock effects of the different bullets upon the viscera of the chest and abdomen, independently of vital parts.

In these experiments, all shooting was done with the muzzle of the revolver or pistol at about three feet from the animal shot, in order that the bullet would strike the proper point.  In all experiments upon living animals, the full charge (close range) cartridge was used.  In each case, the animal was securely tied to a post.

1st Animal:  Stag, about four years old, weighing, approximately 1200 to 1300 lbs.

Bullet from Colt’s New Service Revolver, Caliber 0.476.  Two shots through both lungs from left to right; second shot four inches in front of the first.  Animal dropped at the end of four minutes.  Was apparently not much disturbed by the first shot, only throwing his head slightly, but he was shocked by the second shot.  Blood flowed from nostrils immediately after the first shot, showing that the lung was probably perforated.  He was in a death struggle at the end of four and a half minutes; dead at the end of five minutes.

POST MORTEM:  The two bullets went through both lungs in the same alignment that they were fired.  The amount of contusion surrounding the channel track in the wounds extended from one inch to an inch and a half into the tissues.  The bullets entered behind the left shoulder, the first shot striking the tenth rib and the second shot going through the eighth rib.  some of the bone was driven into the lung by the first shot.  The second shot, after going through the right lung, struck the eighth rib and lodged in the muscle.  The first bullet, after emerging from the right lung, struck the tenth rib, glanced off and was lost.

2nd Animal:  Stag, weighing approximately about the same as the first animal.

Full jacketed bullet from Luger Pistol 7.65 M/M.

Animal shot through lungs from left to right.  Dropped at the end of thirty seconds.  Perceptibly shocked when hit.  Blood flowed at once from nostrils; was in death struggle at end of three minutes.

POST MORTEM:  The bullet perforated both lungs and cut the posterior aorta.  The amount of contusion surrounding the channel track is not quite so extensive as we found it with the 0.476 Colt’s revolver.  The posterior mediastinum was filled with blood from the injured aorta and the amount of hemorrhage in thorax was due to cutting of the artery.  The bullet emerged on the opposite side between the eighth and ninth ribs, perforated the skin and was lost.  In this case the bullet, in going in and out, did not strike any rib.  Death in this case was so manifestly due to the hemorrhage from injory to the aorta, a vital part, that the Board deemed it advisable to repeat the experiment in order to secure a comparative test.

3rd Animal:  Stag, weighing, approximately, 1200 lbs.

Bullet from Colt’s Revolver, Caliber 0.38, Model 1902, (the present service revolver).

Animal shot from left to right through both lungs, as before; was very much shocked and frightened and scampered about; no blood from nostrils.  At the end of one minute and thirty seconds after the first shot his eyes were bright and he was looking about; bowels moved, urine voided.  He was made to turn around into the same position as before.  At the end of two minutes and thirty seconds he was again shot, through the chest.  He jumped as before, either from excitement caused by the report or from shock, more likely from the former.  Animal was again shot at the end of fifty seconds.  In this instance the animal was very much shocked and kept on his feet with difficulty; showed much distress.  Animal dropped to the floor at the end of three minutes and fifty seconds, and died at the end of four minutes and forty-five seconds after the first shot.

POST MORTEM:  There sas a large emphysematous tumor 16 x 18 inches on the right side opposite the entrance of the three bullets.  The first shots went through both lungs and lodged in the chest wall on the opposite side under the skin.  The third shot missed the lung, going above it, and penetrated the aorta.  The cause of death was undoubtedly from the effects of the last shot.  The amount of hematoma surrounding the channel made by the bullet in the lung tissue extended about a half inch into the surrounding tissue.

4th Animal:  Stag, weighing, approximately, 1300 lbs.

Bullet from Colt’s New Service Revolver, Caliber 0.476.

First shot:  Bullet entered from left to right; animal was shocked by the report.  The bullet was intended to traverse the intestinal area as much as possible.  At the end of forty-five seconds the animal was breathing somewhat rapidly.

Second shot:  Two minutes from the first shot.  Bullet struck to the right and below the point where the first entered.  Animal was again shocked by the report of the revolver and, of course, by the force of the blow.

Third shot:  Three minutes and ten seconds from first shot.  Animal was very much shocked by the loudness of the report; his breathing became faster, but he soon quieted down.

As it became evident that the animal would not die immediately from the wounds already inflicted, he was shot in the head at the end of six minutes and thirty seconds from the time of the first shot, with no apparent effect.

Sixth shot:  At the end of seven minutes and fifteen seconds, the animal, still standing, was shot into the ear, with no apparent effect.

Seventh shot:  At the end of eight minutes and fifteen seconds, the animal still standing, was shot behind the ear.  The animal continued to stand, the shots having failed to reach a vital spot, it was determined to kill him in accordance with the method practiced at the slaughter house.  At the fourth blow on the head with a hammer he fell to the ground and expired.

POST MORTEM:  The first shot in the head entered the forehead two inches to the left of the median line on a level with a horizontal between the eyes.  The second shot in the head penetrated about one inch to the right of the median line and about three quarters of an inch below the horizontal line drawn between the eyes.  The third shot in the head penetrated about two inches below and slightly in front of the root of the left ear, passing through the masseter muscle and lower jaw, it lodged in the muscles at the root of the tongue.  The location of the fourth shot in the head could not be found.  None of the shots penetrated the brain.

Three of the bullets went through the stomach and mesentery, inflicing wounds of entrance and exit corresponding in size to the diameter of the bullets.  There were thirteen perforations in the small intestines and two contusions, two perforations and one contusion in the large intestine, and one perforation through the liver without any special amount of laceration.

5th Animal, Steer, weighing, approximately, 1100 lbs.

Full jacketed bullet from Colt’s Automatic Pistol, Military Model 1902.

1:38:25 P.M.  Animal shot through chest from left to right; was on his knees and came to his feet when hit; there was no shock effect apparent.  At 1:39:25 he was again shot.  Shock effect from second bullet was more apparent than from the first; animal jumped and threw his right hind foot against his side.  thirty seconds after the second shot the animal had a fit coughing and protruded his tongue; his breathing became labored.  At 1:40 P.M. the animal was again shot.  In this instance he winced a little and pulled on the rope that fastened him to the post.  As the three bullets, apparently through the lungs, had failed to kill him, the packers were requested to kill him in the prescribed method followed at the slaughter house.  The animal fell to the ground after being struck four heavy blows over the forehead with a hammer.  Death took place at the end of eight minutes from the time of the first shot.

POST MORTEM:  One of the bullets struck the tenth rib on the left side and perforated it, with slight comminution.  The other bullet entered between the eighth and ninth ribs.  At the point of fracture of the rib caused by the first bullet, there was the appearance of two bullets having gone through the same wound, which more than likely marked the entrance of the third bullet.  One bullet was found in the cellular tissue under the skin of the right side, after perforating the rib completely without fracture.  Another bullet was found in the cellular tissue nearby.  The bullets recovered were slightly dented at their conical ends, with no impairment of the jacket.  The third bullet was lost.

Three bullets perforated the left lung and only two perforations could be found in the right lung.  The amount of hematoma surrounding the channel track of the bullets was more extensive than that found in the case of the third animal, shot with Colt’s Revolver, Caliber 0.38, measuring in one instance 3” x 2-1/2”.

6th Animal:  Cow, weighing, approximately, 1000 lbs.

Bullet with hole in point from Colt’s Revolver, Caliber 0.45, New Service.

1:50:35 P.M.  Animal shot through chest from left to right; shock slight.  At the end of twenty-five seconds the animal coughted, looked about and stood firmly on her feet.  At 1:51:35 P.M. the animal was again shot.  She winced a trifle; voided urine; hemorrhage was noticed in the mouth; difficult breathing soon set in.  At 1:52:35 P.M. she was shot through the abdomen twice in rapid succession, as she was falling to the floor.  Death occurred at 1:59 P.M.

POST MORTEM:  One bullet entered between the eighth and ninth ribs and the other between the ninth and tenth ribs on the left side.  One of the bullets fractured the ninth rib on the opposite side and lodged in the area of fracture.  When extracted it was found to be split in two at the conical end.  The other bullet fractured the eighth rib on the right side, and was found in the cellular tissue under the skin opposite the point of fracture.  It was set up.  Bullet perforated both lungs.  In the left lung the amount of hematoma surrounding the channel track was less than that found with the Colt’s Automatic Pistol, Caliber 0.38.  In the right lung it was about the same.

There were five perforations in the intestines, corresponding to the caliber of the bullet; three perforations in the mesentery, one of them twice the size of the bullet; two perforations were noted in the paunch about the size of the bullet.  One of the bullets lodged in the neighborhood of the udder, undeformed.  The other could not be located.  Death due to hemorrhage in lungs causing suffocation.

7th Animal:  Bull, about ten years old, weighing approximately 1300 lbs.

Blunt-pointed bullet from Colt’s Revolver, Caliber 0.45, New Service.

2:15 P.M.  Shot through chest from left to right.  Animal jumped and appeared startled by report of revolver.  At the end of twenty-five seconds he was standing perfectly quiet.  At 2:16 P.M. was again shot.  He again gave evidence of being startled by the report of the revolver.  At the end of one minute and twenty-five seconds from first shot the animal was coughing and bleeding from the mouth.  At 2:17 P.M. animal was again shot; at this time he was coughing up a great deal of blood.  At 2:17:35 P.M. animal was again shot, this time through the abdomen, when he fell to the ground.  At 2:17:45 P.M. was again shot through the abdomen.  After the second shot through the abdomen the animal got up, walked about and fell again.  One minute and ten seconds after last shot the animal was struggling to get upon his feet.  Finally orders were issued to kill him in accordance with the method pursued at the slaughter house.  Animal was dead at the end of four minutes from the first shot.

POST MORTEM:  The bullets going through the chest entered in the skin through the same wound on the left side, one entering the chest between the eighth and ninth ribs and the other fracturing the ninth rib, with more or less fragmentation.  One emerging from the chest, one of them struck the eighth rib on the right side, fracturing it with a great deal of shattering, and the other struck the ninth rib, perforating it with little or no shattering.  The bullets were recovered under the skin on the right side near the point of emergence from chest, undeformed.

Bullet perforated both lungs.  The amount of hematoma surrounding the channel track in the left lung was more extensive than we have seen from any bullet so far, measuring 3 X 3 inches.  In the right lung where the bullet emerged the amount of hematoma is greater still.

There were eleven perforations through the small intestines, some of them a trifle larger than the bullet, but most of them were of the same size.  Two perforations were found in the paunch going in, and one of the bullets was found on the opposite side lodged in the muscular wall of the paunch; the other went through the paunch and was lost.  The bullet found was not deformed.

8th Animal:  Stag, weighing, approximately, 1250 lbs.

Cupped (so-called “Man-stopper”) bullet from Colt’s Revolver, Caliber 0.455, New Service.

2:40:20 P.M., shot through chest from left to right.

Animal was tied to a post with his head pressed against it.  He remained in the same position when hit, only raising his left foot; he coughed but gave no evidence of shock.  At 2:41:20 animal was again shot; no shock apparent, head was still butted against the post.  At 2:42:30 P.M. animal was shot, this time through the abdomen.  He was then between the post and the wall and was standing quietly.  He was driven therefrom to put him in position for firing, as before.  At 2:43:35 P.M. animal was again shot, through the abdomen; continued standing with head butted up against post.  At 2:44:35 P.M. his eyes were clear and he showed no particular manifestation of pain or shock.  Orders were then given to kill him with the hammer.  Death ensued at 2:50 P.M.

POST MORTEM:  The wound of entrance on the left side was larger than the caliber of the bullet, the two bullets having struck in the skin at nearly the same spot.  The edges of the wound were sharp cut.  The two bullets entered the chest between the eighth and ninth ribs, chipping the edge of the former.  There was a large wound in the right side between the eighth and ninth ribs opposite the point of emergence of the bullets from the lung tissue.  The missiles could not be found.

The point of entrance into the lung is marked by an area of contusion 4 x 3 inches in one instance and 3 x 2-1/2 inches in the other.  The channel track surrounding the bullet wounds in the left lung was correspondingly great.  The point of exit of the bullet in the right lung had not so much of an area of contusion as was found in the opposite lung nor was the amount of contusion surrounding the channel track so great.

There were nine lacerations in the small intestine, larger in diameter than the caliber of the bullet.  The two bullets shot through the abdomen were recovered, one on the floor where the examination took place, and the other in the mesentery.  They were uniformly set up.  The edges of the cup were turned back, thereby increasing the sectional area of the projectiles.

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References

The Colt Model 1905 Automatic Pistol, by John Potocki.  Andrew Mobray, Lincoln, RI:  1998.
“The Holes in Stopping Power Theory,” by Leon Day.  Gun Digest, 1983.
U.S. Military Automatic Pistols, 1894-1920, by Edward Scott Meadows.  Richard Ellis, Moline, IL: 1993.
 

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