Unblinking Eye
                                Staining Developers
Google
  Web UnblinkingEye.Com   

 

 


Pyrogallol Developers

Kodak D-1, ABC Pyro

Stock Solution A

 

Sodium bisulphite*

9.8 g

Pyrogallol

60 g

Potassium bromide

1.1 g

Water to make

1000 cc

Stock Solution B

 

Water

1000 cc

Sodium sulphite, desiccated

105 g

Stock Solution C

 

Water

1000 cc

Sodium carbonate, monohydrate

90 g

Mix fresh before use.  For tray development, use 1 part A, B, and C with 7 parts water.  For tank development take 9 ounces each of A, B, and C and add water to make 1 gallon. There are a number of formulas that are nearly identical, including Agfa 45, DuPont 1-D, and Gevaert GD-79.  Weston’s variant decreased the carbonate in C by about 25% and tripled the amount of A used when mixing the working solution.

Kodak D-7, Metol-Pyro

Stock Solution A

 

Water (125° F or 52° C)

500 ml

Metol

7.5 g

Sodium bisulfite*

7.5 g

Pyrogallol

30 g

Potassium bromide

4 g

Cold water to make

1 liter

Stock Solution B

 

Water

1 liter

Sodium sulfite

150 g

Stock Solution C

 

Water

1 liter

Sodium carbonate, monohydrated

90 g

Take 8 ounces each of A, B, and C and add water to make 1 gallon.  Agfa 46 and DuPont 2-D are nearly identical.

Kodak SD-1 Stain Developer

Water (125° F or 52° C)

500 cc

Sodium sulfite

1.4 g

Pyrogallol

2.8 g

Sodium carbonate

5.3 g

Water to make

1000 cc

Use undiluted.

Gevaert G.202 Pyro-Metol

Stock Solution A

 

Water (125° F or 52° C)

750 cc

Metol

4 g

Potassium metabisulfite

10 g

Pyrogallol

10 g

Sodium sulfite, desiccated

50 g

Potassium bromide

1 g

Cold water to make

1 liter

Stock Solution B

 

Sodium carbonate, monohydrated

93.6 g

Water to make

1 liter

For normally exposed negatives take equal parts of solutions A and B. In case of overexposure, increase the quantity of solution A.  For underexposures, increase the quantity of solution B.  To obtain even softer results, dilute the mixed solutions with 1 or 2 parts water.

Gevaert G.205, Pyro-Metol-Hydroquinone

Water (125° F or 52° C)

750 cc

Metol

2 g

Sodium sulfite, desiccated

75 g

Hydroquinone

8 g

Sodium carbonate, monohydrated

58.5 g

Potassium metabisulfite

12 g

Pyrogallol

8 g

Potassium bromide

2 g

Cold water to make

1 liter

For tray development, dilute 1 part stock solution with 4 parts water. For tank development, dilute 1 part stock solution with 9 parts water.

Gevaert G.213

Water (125° F or 52° C)

750 cc

Pyrogallol

2.5 g

Potassium metabisulfite

2.5 g

Sodium sulfite, desiccated

10 g

Sodium carbonate, monohydrated

5.8 g

Cold water to make

1 liter

Use undiluted.

Edwards Pyro-Ammonia Glycerin

Stock Solution A

 

Pyrogallol

40 g

Glycerin

40 cc

Denatured methyl alcohol

250 cc

Stock Solution B

 

Potassium bromide

15 g

Ammonia

40 cc

Glycerin

40 cc

Water

250 cc

For use mix 1 part A, 1 part B, and 30 parts water.  The addition of glycerin tends to give softer negatives.

Morley Baer Pyro Citric

A (dry chemical)

 

Pyrogallol crystals

9 g

Stock Solution B

 

Sodium sulfite

100 g

Citric acid crystals

20 g

Water to make

64 ounces

Stock Solution C

 

Sodium carbonate, monohydrated

150 g

Water to make

64 ounces

For use mix 9 grams of A with 9 ounces of B and water to make 90 ounces total solution. Immediately before development add 9 ounces of C.

Wimberley WD2D

Stock Solution A

 

Water (100° F or 38° C)

400 ml

Metol

1.5 g

Sodium bisulfite, anhydrous

5 g

Pyrogallol

15 g

Water to make

500 ml

Stock Solution B

 

Water

400 ml

Sodium carbonate, monohydrated

22 g

Water to make

500 ml

For use 20ml A and 20ml B to 400ml water.  To adjust contrast, vary the amount of solution B--more B gives higher contrast, less B decreases contrast. The original formula contained benzotriazole, but this was later eliminated to increase contrast and reduce development times.

PMK (Pyro-Metol-Kodalk)

Stock Solution A

 

Distilled water

750 cc

Metol

10 g

Sodium bisulfite*

20 g

Pyrogallol

100 g

EDTA (optional)

5 g

Water to make

1 liter

Stock Solution B

 

Distilled water

1400 cc

Sodium metaborate

600 g

Water to make

2 liters

For use mix 1 part A, plus 2 parts B, plus 100 parts water.

Rollo Pyro

Stock Solution A

 

Distilled water

400 ml

Metol

7.5 g

Sodium Bisulfite*

10 g

Pyrogallol

75 g

Ascorbic acid

5 g

EDTA -Na4

2.5 g

Water to make

500 ml

Stock Solution B

 

Distilled water

950 ml

Sodium metaborate

150 g

Make a working solution by mixing 2 parts A with 8 parts B with 100 parts water. This pyro solution is specially designed as a substitute for PMK and provides even development with tube processors running at 25 rpm.  Developing times range from 5 to 7 minutes.

W-80

Water

600 cc

Metol

6 g

Paraphenylene diamine hydrochloride

10 g

Glycin

5 g

Pyrogallol

1 g

Tri-sodium phosphate (monohydrate)

2 g

Water to make

1 liter

If anyone has information on developing times for this developer, please write to the webmaster.

Welborne Piper Formula

Stock Solution A

 

Sodium sulfite

75 g

Potassium metabisulfite

18 g

Pyrogallol

18 g

Water to make

1 liter

Stock Solution B

 

Sodium carbonate

55 g

Water to make

1 liter

For soft negatives, mix just before use 1A + 1B + 2 water. For strong negatives, mix 1A + 1B + 1 water.

TD-3

Distilled water

750 ml

Sodium sulfite

1 g

Pyrocatechin

0.25 g

Sodium carbonate (anhydrous)

15 g

Distilled water to make

1 liter

Bill Troop’s developer for Tech-Pan. If greater activity is required, the carbonate may be increased to 20 g.  See http://www.photoformulary.com/uploads/01-0065.doc for more information.

Pyrocatechin Developers

Pyrocatechin

Stock Solution A

 

Pyrocatechin

1 g

Water

1000 cc

Stock Solution B

 

Potassium carbonate

200 g

Water

1000 cc

For use, mix 10 parts A with 1 part B.

Windisch Compensating Formula

Stock Solution A

 

Pyrocatechin

8 g

Sodium sulfite

1.25 g

Water to make

100 cc

Stock Solution B

 

Sodium hydroxide

10 g

Cold water to make

100 cc

For normal use, mix 12 parts A, 7 parts B, and 500 parts water.  If the negative material is innately contrasty, use 20 parts A and 5 parts B. Ansel preferred to mix the B solution at 1% instead of 10% for high-contrast subjects, and he then used 20 parts A and 50 parts B (1% solution) with 500 parts water.  Solution B does not keep well, but A keeps very well in a glass bottle with no air.

Byrd’s Pyro-cat

Stock Solution A

 

Warm water (90° F)

800 ml

Sodium sulfite

18 g

Pyrocatechin

120 g

Water to make

1 liter

Stock Solution B

 

Cool water (<80° F)

1 liter

Sodium hydroxide

30 g

For use mix 1 part A with 1 part B with 100 parts water. Agitate 10 seconds every minute. Starting development times: 68°/17m, 70°/15m, 72°/13.5m, 74°/12.5m, 76°/11.5m, 78°/10.5m, 80°/9.5m,  82°/9m. 

Foma FV-11

Metol

3 g

Sodium sulfite, anhydrous

45 g

Sodium carbonate

30 g

Pyrocatechin

6 g

Water to make

1 liter

Dilute 1+1 to 1+5 for use, depending on desired contrast.  Approximate development times are 3 minutes at 1+1, 8 minutes at 1+3, and 15 minutes at 1:5.

Sodium Tribasic Phosphate Formula

Stock Solution A

 

Sodium sulfite

110 g

Pyrocatechin

22 g

Water to make

1 liter

Stock Solution B

 

Tri-sodium phosphate

14 g

Water to make

1 liter

Add 1 part A to 1 part B to 1 part water.

Herrman’s Fine Grain Developer

Metol

9 g

Pyrocatechin

9 g

Sodium sulphite

60 g

Sodium carbonate

60 g

Water to make

1 liter

Dilute 1+9 or 1+19 for use.

Pextral Two-Bath Formula

Bath 1

 

Pyrocatechin

1.5 g

Sodium sulfite, anhydrous

0.3 g

Water to make

300 ml

Bath 2

 

Sodium hydroxide

6 g

Water to make

300 ml

Process for 2 minutes in Bath 1 and 1 minute in Bath 2 at  20° C.

Maxim Muir’s Compensating Formula

Stock Solution A

 

Water

250 ml

Sodium metabisulfite

10 g

Pyrocatechin

40 g

Water to make

500 ml

Stock Solution B

 

Sodium hydroxide

10 g

Cold water to make

100 ml

For use, mix 2 parts A, 1 part B, and 200 parts water. Solution B does not keep more than a week or so.

Mimosa No. 3

Stock Solution A

 

Water

750 ml

Sodium sulfite, desiccated

30 g

Pyrocatechin

20 g

Potassium bromide

0.5 g

Water to make

1 liter

Stock Solution B

 

Sodium carbonate, anhydrous

120 g

Water to make

1 liter

For use, mix 1 part A and 1 part B with 10 parts water.

One-Shot Formula

Catechol

2 g

Sodium sulphite, anhydrous, 5% sol

5 ml

Sodium hydroxide, 5% solution

10 ml

Water to make

1 liter

Use undiluted. Development time:  15 minutes at 68° F.

Barry Thornton’s 2-Bath Formula

Bath A Concentrate

 

Pyrocatechin

10 g

Sodium sulphite

2 g

Potassium bromide

0.5 g

Water to make

100 ml

Bath B Concentrate

 

Potassium hydroxide

10 g

Potassium bromide

0.5 g

Water to make

100 ml

Working solutions of A and B are mixed 1+14 with water.  Recommended times are 4 minutes in A at 21° C with agitation once every 30 seconds, followed by 4 minutes in B at 21° C with agitation once every minute. Do not rinse between baths.

Pyrocat-HD

Stock Solution A

 

Distilled water

75 ml

Sodium metabisulfite

1 g

Pyrocatechin

5.0 g

Phenidone**

0.2 g

Potassium bromide

0.2 g

Distilled water to make

100 ml

Stock Solution B

 

Distilled Water

70 ml

Potassium carbonate

75 g

Distilled water to make

100 ml

To make a standard working solution mix 1 part A with 1 part B with 100 parts water (1:1:100).  For greater contrast, double the amount of B (1:2:100). Solution A keeps for about 6 months in a tightly stoppered brown glass bottle.

** 2.5 grams of Metol may be substituted for the phenidone with a slight loss in film speed but better keeping qualities.

Perutz OP-004

Stock Solution 1

 

Pyrocatechin

200 g

Sodium Sulphite

50 g

Water to make

1 liter

Stock Solution 2

 

Sodium carbonate

100 g

Water to make

1 liter

For use mix 12 ml Solution 1 with 240 ml Solution 2 and add water to make 1 liter.

This is a page in progress.
I am still collecting staining formulae of all kinds and would welcome suggestions for new formulas.  Also, if you find any errors, please let me know.

More Pyrogallol Developers

Pyro Triethanolamine

Oxalic acid

1.8 g

Potassium metabisulfite

4.5 g

Pyrogallol

54 g

Metol

19 g

Sodium sulfite

135 g

Triethanolamine

140 ml

Distilled water to make

4 liters

Mix 1:1 with distilled water for a working solution. If you are doing development by inspection, the remaining concentrate can be used as a replenisher for the working solution. When the working solution gets too thick, discard it. Store the concentrate in several small dark glass bottles with no air. Developing times for most films should be between 5 and 10 minutes at 68° F.

Gainer Triethanolamine

Pyrogallol

7 g

Triethanolamine

100 ml

Heat to above boiling point of water to drive off any water that might be in the triethanolamine.  Try various dilutions starting with 1+50. 10 to 14 minutes at 70° F.  You can get the triethanolamine at Photographer's Formulary or cheaper at www.chemistrystore.com.

* In regard to the chemical nature of sodium bisulfite see http://silvergrain.org/Photo-Tech/chemistry-misnomers.html.
For a more formal discussion, see the Journal of Chemical Education, 2003, 80, 1482 or 2000, 77, 830.

 

[Home] [Articles] [Photographs] [Travel] [Books] [Links]

E-mail Webmaster