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Film Developers

D-23

Distilled Water (125 degrees F) . . . . .  . . 750 ml
Metol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7.5 g
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . . . 100 g
Cold Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . 1 ltr

     An economical, slow-working low-contrast developer for use when a low density range is desired.

DK-25R Replenisher for D-23

Distilled Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . .   750 ml
Metol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10 g
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . . . 100 g
Kodalk (Sodium metaborate) . . . . . . . . . .  20 g
Cold Water to make 1 ltr

     Add this replenisher to the D-23 stock solution at the rate of 23 milliliters per roll developed.


D-76H

Distilled Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . .    750 ml
Metol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    2.5 g
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . . .   100 g
Borax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     2 g
Cold Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1 ltr

     Said to provide the same development times and effects as D-76, but without the variability that comes with aging.


Germain Fine Grain Formula

Distilled Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . .  700 ml
Metol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     7 g
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . .     70 g
Paraphenylene Diamine (base) . . . . . . .     7 g
Glycin  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    7 g
Cold Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 liter

     Use full strength.  Replenish with stock.  Works best after it has had 5 or 6 rolls run through and has ripened and stabilized.  Develop 9 to 15 minutes at 75 F.  Keeps almost indefinitely. 


Agfa 17

Distilled Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . .   750 ml
Metol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1.5 g
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . . .    80 g
Hydroquinone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     3 g
Borax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      3 g
Potassium Bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    0.5 g
Cold Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1 ltr

     Fine grain borax formula.


PMK Pyro Formula

Stock Solution A
Distilled Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . .  400 ml
Metol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     5 g
Sodium Bisulfite*  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10 g
Pyrogallol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  50 g
EDTA (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2.5 g
Cold water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  500 ml

Stock Solution B
Distilled water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   700 ml
Sodium Metaborate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   300 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1000 ml

     Make a working solution by mixing 1 part A with 2 parts B with 100 parts water.  To make 1 liter of working solution add 10 ml of A and 20 ml of B to 1000 ml of distilled water.  This high-acutance developer produces superior gradation for fine art work.


Rollo Pyro

Stock Solution A
Distilled water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   400 ml
Metol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7.5 g
Sodium Bisulfite*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    10 g
Pyrogallol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75 g
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) . . . . . . . . . . . .      5 g
EDTA - Na4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    2.5 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   500 ml

Stock Solution B
Distilled water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   950 ml
Sodium Metaborate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   150 g

     Make a working solution by mixing 2 parts A with 8 parts B with 100 parts water.  This pyro solution is specially designed as a substitute for PMK and provides even development with tube processors running at 25 rpm.  Developing times range from 5 to 7 minutes.


Pyrocatechin Compensating
Formula

Stock Solution A
Distilled Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . .  100 ml
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous) . . . . . . . . . . 1.25 g
Pyrocatechin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8 g

Stock Solution B
Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1 g
Cold Distilled Water to make . . . . . . . . . .  100 ml

     Mix 40 milliliters of A and 100 milliliters of B with 1000 milliliters of distilled water to make a working solution.  This highly compensating formula causes a speed loss of at least a full stop, but allows the film to capture approximately a 14-stop range.


Pyrocat-HD

Stock Solution A
Distilled Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . . .    75 ml
Sodium Metabisulfite. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1 g
Pyrocatechin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    5 g
Phenidone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      0.2 g
Potassium Bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     0.1 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      100 ml

Stock Solution B
Distilled Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    70 ml
Potassium Carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     75 g
Distilled water to make - - - - - - - - - - - - -    100 ml

     To make a standard working solution, mix 1 part A with 1 part B with 100 ml water.  Pyrocat-HD is not subject to problems with uneven development, so agitation can be reduced to once per minute or less.  2.5 grams of Metol may be substituted for the Phenidone.
 

Hypo Clearing Agent

Water (125 F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    750 ml
Sodium Sulfite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   200 g
Sodium bisulfite*. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1 liter

     Dilute 1:9 for use.
 

Paper Developers

Ansco 120

Water (125 deg. F.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    750.0 ml
Metol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   12.3 g
Sodium Sulfite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   36.0 g
Sodium Carbonate (mono.) . . . . . . . . . .    36.0 g
Potassium Bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1.8 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1.0 liter

     Low-contrast developer, suitable for print solarization.  Standard dilution is 1:2.  Alternatively listed as Agfa 120.


Kodak D-163

Water (125 deg. F.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     750 ml
Metol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      2.2 g
Sodium Sulfite (anhydrous) . . . . . . . . . . .  75 g
Hydroquinone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     17 g
Sodium Carbonate (anhydrous) . . . . . . .    65 g
Potassium Bromide (10%). . . . . . . . . . . .   2.8 ml
Water to make  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1 liter

     I’ve read that D-163 was pulled from the U.S. market when Dektol appeared, though it remained available overseas.  Dilute 1:3 or 1:4 for normal use.  For bromoil, use dilutions of 1:6 to 1:12.


Universal Paper Developer

Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . . . . . . . .    750 ml
Metol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     4.4 g
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . .      50 g
Hydroquinone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    8.8 g
Sodium Carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     80 g
Potassium Bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1.8 g
Sodium tetraphosphate . . . . . . . . . . . .     3.8 g
Cold water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1.0 liter

     Dilute 1:2 for use.  Dektol substitute.


Agfa 120

Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . . . . . . . .      750 ml
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . . .     60 g
Hydroquinone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   24 g
Potassium Carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    80 g
Cold water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1.0 liter

     One of the few hydroquinone-only formulae. Said to give brown tones on Agfa Portriga (1:4) and warm black tones on Agfa Brovira (1:5).  ”The Ansco 120 formula above is often referred to in formularies as Agfa 120.


Ansco 130

Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . . . . . . . .    750 ml
Metol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     2.2 g
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . .      50 g
Hydroquinone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   11 g
Sodium Carbonate (Monohydrate) . . . . .    78 g
Potassium Bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5.5 g
Glycin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   11 g
Cold Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       1 liter

     Use undiluted for high contrast. Dilute 1:1 for normal work.  Produces neutral tones on bromide papers.


 

Adams' Ansco 130 Variant

Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . . . . . . . .     750 ml
Metol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     2.2 g
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . .      35 g
Sodium Carbonate (Monohydrate) . . . . .    78 g
Potassium Bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1 g
Glycin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    11 g
Cold Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1 liter

     Use undiluted or 1:1 for low contrast.  Produces less contrast and a warmer print color than the standard formula.


Agfa 115

Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . . . . . . . .    750 ml
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . .      90 g
Sodium Carbonate (Monohydrate) . . . . .  150 g
Glycin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    30 g
Hydroquinone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    9.5 g
Potassium Bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     4 g
Cold Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      1 liter

     Also known as Dassonville D-3, and nearly identical to Edwal 106.  Dilute 1:3 for use.  Develop 2.5 to 3 minutes.  May be used at dilutions as high as 1:7 or 1:15 for brown tones, with developing times of 3 to 10 minutes.


Agfa/Ansco 113

Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . . . . . . .       750 ml
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . . .      44 g
Potassium Bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      .55 g
Amidol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    6.6 g
Cold Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1 liter

     Use full strength.  Add the amidol only after the solution of the first two chemicals has cooled to below 80 degrees.


Fein's Amidol

Water (125 degrees F) . . . . . . . . . . . .       750 ml
Benzotriazole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     .8 g
Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) . . . . . . . .     58.5 g
Amidol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      8.8 g
Citric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   13.5 g
Cold Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      1 liter

     Produces beautiful print color with chloride papers.  Add amidol and citric acid after solution has cooled.


Peckham Amidol

Water (125 F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     750 ml
Sodium Chloride (salt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .       2 g
EDTA* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     2.6 g
Sodium Sulfite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     28 g
Catechol (pyrocatechin) . . . . . . . . . . . .     2.33 g
Kodalk (Sodium metaborate) . . . . . . . . .     2.6 g
Amidol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     2.33 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      1 liter

     A clean-working, economical formula. 
* The EDTA may be omitted.


Amidol Formula (from Lootens)

Water (125 F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      750 ml
Sodium Sulfite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    24.5 g
Citric acid  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     0.6 g
Amidol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     8.1 g
Potassium bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     0.6 g
Ammonium thiocyanate . . . . . . . . . . . . .   0.3 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      1 liter

     The ammonium thiocyanate can be omitted, but is said to give better blacks.  The citric acid is to reduce oxidation and prevent stains.
 

Reducers

Farmer’s Reducer for Prints

Stock Solution A:
Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    250.0 ml
Potassium ferricyanide . . . . . . . . . . . . .     64.0 g
Potassium bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   30.0 g

Stock Solution B:
Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    500.0 ml
Sodium thiosulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    120.0 g

     For use normal use, mix 1/4 ounce (7.5 ml) of solution A with 6 ounces (180 ml) of solution B and add water to make 16 ounces or 500 ml.  This solution works quickly, so reduction must be carefully monitored.  For a slower reducing action, increase the amount of water or reduce the amount of Solution A.

Farmer’s Reducer for Negatives
(Cutting formula for overexposed negatives)

Stock Solution A:
Potassium ferricyanide . . . . . . . . . . . . .      19 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   250 ml

Stock Solution B:
Sodium Thiosulfate (hypo) . . . . . . . . .      240 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1 liter

    For use, mix 30 ml. Solution A with 120 ml. Solution B and add water to make 1 liter.  This is for cutting the density of negatives, but it also increases contrast.

Farmer’s Reducer for Negatives
(Proportional formula for overdeveloped negs)

Stock Solution A:
Potassium ferricyanide . . . . . . . . . . . . .    7.5 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      1 liter

Stock Solution B:
Sodium Thiosulfate (hypo) . . . . . . . . .     200 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1 liter

     For use, place negative in solution A for 1 to 5 minutes, then place in solution B for 5 minutes.  Wash thoroughly.
 

Print Toners

Dupont 6T Gold Toner
(for blue tones on chloride papers)

Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    750 ml
Gold Chloride  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1 g
Potassium Thiocyanate . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     6 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1 liter

Nelson Gold Toner
(for warm tones on chloride papers)

Stock Solution No. 1:
Water (125 F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      4 liters
Sodium Thiosulfate (hypo) . . . . . . . . . .    960 g
Ammonium Persulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   120 g

     Dissolve the hypo completely before adding the ammonium persulfate.  An equal amount of potassium persulfate may be substituted.  If the bath does not turn milky, increase the temperature until it does.  Cool the solution before proceeding.
     Prepare the following solution and add it (including precipitate) slowly to the hypo-persulfate solution while stirring the latter rapidly.  Both solutions must be cool.
Cold water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   64 ml
Silver nitrate crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     5.2 g 
Sodium chloride (table salt) . . . . . . . . .    5.2 g
     Dissolve the silver nitrate completely before adding the salt.  Do not use iodized salt.

Stock Solution No. 2:
Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    250 ml
Gold Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1 g

     Add 125 ml of Solution No. 2 slowly to Solution No.1 while stirring the latter rapidly.  After mixing, the bath should not be used until it has become cool and has formed a sediment.  Sediment formation may continue for  several days or a week.  Pour off the clear liquid for use.
     Add the clear solution to a tray standing in a water bath and heat the solution to 110.  Dry prints should be soaked thoroughly in water before toning.  Keep an untoned print at hand for comparison purposes.
     Chloride papers should be toned between 100 and 110 Farenheit for 5 to 20 minutes.  Most modern papers seem to require about 20 minutes.
     After 50 8x10 inch prints have been toned, add 4 ml of Stock Solution No. 2 to the toner mixture.

Gevaert G-417 Gold Toner
(for blue tones on chloride papers)

Solution A:
Gold chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      1 g
Calcium carbonate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     3 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  250 ml

Solution B:
Thiourea (thiocarbamide) . . . . . . . . . . . .   16 g
Sodium thiosulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    16 g
Potassium metabisulfite . . . . . . . . . . . . .      5 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  250 ml

     Prints should be developed a little lighter than usual for this toner.  Solutions should be prepared 24 hours before use and mixed in equal parts immediately before use.  Toning takes about 5 minutes.  Wash thoroughly.

 Thiocarbamide Sepia Toner

Reducing Bath:
Water  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   750 ml
Potassium Ferricyanide . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   20 g
Potassium Bromide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   10 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   1 liter

Redeveloper Stock Solution A:
Water  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   750 ml
Thiocarbamide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   100 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1 liter

Redeveloper Stock Solution B:
Very cold water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 ml
Sodium Hydroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  100 g
Water to make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    1 liter

     Handle sodium hydroxide with extreme care.  Wear gloves and eye protection.  Add the hydroxide very slowly to the cold water, while stirring, as it will generate a great deal of heat and may boil if added too quickly.

     Instructions:  Reduce the prints in the reducing bath until no trace of black remains.  1-2 minutes is usually sufficient.  Wash thoroughly until all the yellow has been cleared.  Redevelop.

     Print color is controlled by varying the ratio of redeveloper solutions A and B in water:
     1. Yellow-Brown:  8 A, 4 B, 100 water,
     2. Medium-Brown:  6 A, 6 B, 100 water,
     3. Dark-Brown:  3 A, 9 B, 100 water,
     4. Purple-Brown:  2 A, 10 B, 100 water.

 

Amidol Paper Developers
Pyrogallol and Pyrocatechin Staining Developers for Film
Lith Developers
Salted Paper Formulae
Ferric Silver Formulae (Vandyke and Kallitype)
Cyanotype and Other Ferric Non-Silver Formulae
Hardening Solutions for Film and Paper

Click here to buy from Amazon.

* In regard to the chemical nature of sodium bisulfite see the
Journal of Chemical Education, 2003, 80, 1482 or 2000, 77, 830.

Note:  If you are not familiar with handling photographic chemicals, please take the time to educate yourself before using unfamiliar products.  Some safety information may be found in my article on Mixing Developers.  More detailed safety information may be found in Photographic Processing Hazards

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